The influence of climatic change on the Late Bronze Age Collapse and the Greek Dark Ages
Brandon L. Drake
Between the 13th and 11th centuries BCE, most Greek Bronze Age Palatial centers were destroyed and/or abandoned. The following centuries were typified by low population levels. Data from oxygen-isotope speleothems, stable carbon isotopes, alkenone-derived sea surface temperatures, and changes in warm-species dinocysts and formanifera in the Mediterranean indicate that the Early Iron Age was more arid than the preceding Bronze Age. A sharp increase in Northern Hemisphere temperatures preceded the collapse of Palatial centers, a sharp decrease occurred during their abandonment. Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures cooled rapidly during the Late Bronze Age, limiting freshwater flux into the atmosphere and thus reducing precipitation over land. These climatic changes could have affected Palatial centers that were dependent upon high levels of agricultural productivity. Declines in agricultural production would have made higher-density populations in Palatial centers unsustainable. The ‘Greek Dark Ages’ that followed occurred during prolonged arid conditions that lasted until the Roman Warm Period.
► The survey of paleoclimatic data contributes to a century-long debate. ► Stable carbon isotopes from radiocarbon-dated pollen can indicate paleoclimate. ► Mediterranean sea surface temperatures (SST) indicate precipitation patterns. ► The Bronze Age Collapse is contemporaneous with a sharp drop in temperatures (GISP2). ► The Bronze Age Collapse and Greek Dark Ages may result from the same arid period.
- Bronze Age Collapse;
- Carbon isotopes;
- Sea surface temperature;
- Climate change;
Sex determination in modern Greeks using diagonal measurements of molar teeth
- a Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, 75 M. Asias Street, Goudi, Athens 11527, Greece
- b Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
- Received 16 June 2011. Revised 5 September 2011. Accepted 22 September 2011. Available online 15 October 2011.
Volume 217, Issues 1–3, 10 April 2012, Pages 19–26
Sexual dimorphism of the scapula and the clavicle in a contemporary Greek population: Applications in forensic identification
- Vasiliki A. Papaioannoua,
- Elena F. Kraniotia, b,
- Perrine Joveneauxc,
- Despoina Nathenaa,
- Manolis Michalodimitrakisa
- a Department of Forensic Sciences, Medical School, University of Crete, 71110 Heraklion, Greece
- b Forensic Anthropology, University of Edinburgh, William Robertson Wing, Old Medical School, Teviot Place, EH8 9AG, Scotland, UK
- c Department of Biology, UTI A of Lille, 59653, France
- Received 9 March 2011. Revised 24 October 2011. Accepted 8 November 2011. Available online 3 December 2011.
Volume 217, Issues 1–3, 10 April 2012, Pages 231.e1–231.e7